Matlamat Pendidikan di Zaman Global

Tatkala saya diminta mengendalikan Bengkel Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran Matematik kepada guru-guru SERPAMA, Svay Khleang, Thbaung Khmum, Kemboja, pada 20-22 Disember 2015, saya menggariskan dua persoalan utama. Persoalan pertama membicarakan bagaimanakah Matematik boleh difahami dan dikuasai oleh guru-guru dan murid-murid. Persoalan kedua adalah halatuju dan matlamat pendidikan kepada murid-murid sekolah. Saya mengucapkan ribuan terima-kasih kepada Dr. Mohd Zain Musa, Pengetua SERPAMA yang menjemput saya mengendalikan bengkel ini disekolahnya.

Beliau sedang berusaha menyiapkan bangunan sekolah tiga tingkat yang seluruh kosnya berjumlah USD300,000. Jika ada penderma-penderma di Selangor ini yang sudi membantu beliau, silalah hubungi beliau. Saya kemudiannya dijemput juga memberikan pandangan dalam Seminar Dakwah dan Pendidikan Masyarakat Muslim Kemboja, pada 25 Januari 2016, bertempat di Putrajaya.

Berdasarkan dua pembentangan ini, makanya disini saya menuliskan dengan lebih kemas tentang persoalan kedua berkenaan. Jawapan saya kepada persoalan matlamat pendidikan bukanlah berdasarkan kajian dan rujukan yang tuntas kepada banyak sumber, namun hanyalah berdasarkan pengalaman dan renungan yang agak teliti terhadap permasalahan pendidikan di Malaysia, baik pada peringkat sekolah mahupun universiti.

Kajian dan rujukan teliti akan saya lakukan kemudiannya, dan penerbitan seterusnya mungkin berbentuk teori pendidikan. Persoalan matlamat pendidikan ini amatlah penting dibicarakan, malah patutnya mendapat tempat dihati ibubapa yang anak-anak mereka menuntut disekolah atau universiti, kerana hanyalah dengan didikan yang baik kepada anak-anak akan menjadikan mereka bersedia untuk mengharung cabaran abad-abad mendatang. Berikut saya gariskan rumusan terhadap matlamat pendidikan yang sebelum ini saya bicarakan kepada dua kumpulan hadirin sahaja :

i. Mendatangkan Minat Belajar : Pentadbir, guru-guru, pensyarah-pensyarah dan ibubapa perlulah berusaha mendatangkan minat belajar dikalangan kanak-kanak dan siswa/i. Banyak cara boleh digunakan seperti penceritaan, permainan, biografi, teladan, etnoilmu, dll.

ii. Dorongan Memahami Ilmu : Silabus dan kaedah pengajaran-pembelajaran mestilah berteraskan kepada memahami konsep-konsep ilmu, dan bukannya menghafal rumus/formula/fakta. Sesuatu konsep mestilah dijelaskan semenjak awalnya, dan bagaimanakah rumus/formula/fakta itu hadirnya sedemikian?

iii. Membina Sikap Intelektual : Pengajaran-pembelajaran apapun bentuk ilmu mestilah sepatutnya menyuburkan pemikiran seseorang murid/siswa/i, sebab penjelasan keberadaan sesuatu ilmu memerlukan aspek berfikir yang bukan sedikit. Segala bentuk kaedah berfikir sepatutnya dapat digarap dalam pengajaran-pembelajaran terutamanya berfikir analitik, logik, intuisi, induksi, deduksi, dll. Namun, lebih umum, pemikiran sebegini boleh dikembangkan kepada aspek-aspek intelektual lainnya seperti membaca, berbincang, mengkaji, memimpin, menulis, mengurus, dll.

iv. Membina Sikap Mesra Penyelidikan : Pengajaran-pembelajaran yang bertunjangkan kaedah berfikir akan mendorong kanak-kanak/siswa/i untuk melakukan rujukan yang agak sederhana banyak, dan ini secara tak langsung mengajar mereka melakukan penyelidikan kecil-kecilan (malah berbentuk ulangan) dalam bidang-bidang ilmu yang mereka pelajari.

v. Membina Sikap Mesra Berkarya : Melakukan rujukan yang sederhana banyak memaksa seseorang kanak-kanak/siswa/i untuk menyusun maklumat-maklumat yang digelintarnya untuk memahami sesuatu konsep. Ini akan mendorong beliau menulis karangan bagi menyusun dan mengaitkan maklumat-maklumat yang berulangan dan pelbagai.

vi. Membangun Dokumentasi : Rujukan yang sederhana banyak memungkinkan seseorang kanak-kanak/siswa/i membuat salinan fotokopi terhadap buku-buku, majalah-majalah, jurnal-jurnal, dll sumber rujukan bagi sesuatu konsep ilmu. Salinan-salinan ini sepatutnya disimpan dalam satu sistem pengkatalogan yang agak baik. Ini memerlukan bimbingan ibubapa dan guru-guru/pensyarah-pensyarah. Galakan membeli buku mestilah ditekankan. Lain-lain bentuk dokumentasi juga mestilah dikembangkan seperti diari, web, blog, pangkalan data, dll.
vii. Persekitaran : Masyarakat juga memerlukan kanak-kanak/siswa/i yang mempelajari ilmu untuk cenderung kepada hal-hal yang menyentuh alam sekitar, masyarakat, kebersihan, keselamatan, budaya, perairan, dll.
Saya mengharapkan ada kalangan guru-guru, pensyarah-pensyarah malah ibubapa yang merasakan perlunya beberapa perkara ini diamalkan dalam pendidikan seharian kanak-kanak samada dirumah, disekolah mahupun di universiti. Kita memahukan agarnya hasil daripada sistem pendidikan Malaysia adalah merupakan masyarakat yang berupaya membangun berteraskan keilmuan.

Dr. Mohammad Alinor Abdul Kadir
Gerakan Intelektual Rakyat (GATERA)

Usrah Buku: Early Islam & The Birth of Capitalism

early_islam_benedikt_koehler

Kapitalism.

Satu perkataan yang kedengaran sungguh jijik dan selalu dibantai para pendokong gerakan Islam. Tetapi apakah benar apa yang ditentang itu kapitalism?

Bagaimana kalau Islam sebenarnya yang membawa kepada kelahiran kapitalism?

Mari kita gali dan kupas buku Early Islam & The Birth of Capitalism tulisan Benedikit Koehler!

p/s: Download transkrip teks ucapan di sini.

Tarikh: Sabtu 13 Februari 2016

Tempat: The Peak Coffee, Taman Pemata, Kuala Lumpur

Naqib: Firdaus Ariff & Naim Jaafar

Daftar melalui link ini.

Re-Thinking Economics Part 11

Emerging Patterns from Shariah-Based Economic System

What matters most from this study is not to unearth ideal economic state of past Muslim civilizations. More importantly, we want to grasp the logic and pattern so we can chart a new manifestation of Shariah-based Economic System.

Crescent & Start Over Capitol by Eneas de Troya
Crescent & Start Over Capitol by Eneas de Troya

Shariah-based Economic System puts human nature at the very heart of its logic. Taking into account human’s cognitive and psychological biases, the system is designed to provide transparent feedback on the risk posed by the market.

Many safeguards and warnings were made against human greed. Yet at the same time it still have faith on human kindness and altruism.

With human individual nature dealth with, Shariah-based Economic System actually is more concerned with human as a social being and the wellbeing of the society itself. Anything that are onl beneficial to an individual at the expense of the society is prohibited. In other words, Shariah-based Economic System puts the society before the indidividual.

Trade is viewed as an extension of mutual aid thus greater emphasis was placed on real economic activities providing product and services. Making money from purely financial transaction is strictly prohibited. Because it is only real product and services (digital ones included) that can benefit humans.

We eat food — not numbers. Money are means for greater good, not the end in itself.

Although real product and services provide benefit to humans, too much of a good thing can be harmful as well. Thus the logic of SBES is to restrict consumption and curb consumerism.

The logic is that if an individual consumes too much of something, he is actually depriving others from benefiting from it. Seen from another angle, Shariah-based Economic System views that scarcity arises from human greed. Contrastingly, mainstream modern economic system promotes greed because of the fear of scarcity.

This thinking extends to the pattern of avoiding concentration of wealth. It doesn’t stop at that, Shariah-based Economic System even promotes redistribution of wealth through various means. At times it even ‘forces’ redistribution such as in the case of faraid.

It is not enough that wealth must not be concentrated and must be redistributed. In fact wealth and money must be highly liquid flowing fast and evenly throughout the society — whether through commercial or charitable transcation. The market also must be decentralized to avoid fragility in the system.

Shariah-based Economic System protects the market from fragility. Any measure that can fragilizes the system is prohibited. This includes but not limited to price control, ususry and large concentration of wealth.

Amidst all the economic -ism, what does Shariah-based Economic System most closely resembles? In short; Capitalism without Consumerism. The long one; Regulated Free Market Capitalism without Consumerism governed by Small Government.

Alhamdulillah, I think this more or less concludes this humble thesis of mine. The are many more tangential thoughts arising from this study but I will deal with it in separate writings.

Usrah Buku: Linchpin

Usrah Buku kedua membincangkan Linchpin oleh Seth Godin. Ini adalah lanjutan kepada perbincangan lepas tentang revolusi ekonomi. Linchpin membawa idea besar tersebut pada tahap personal yang boleh diaplikasikan. Pembentang kali ini adalah Tuan Naim Jaafar.

IMG_5499

IMG_5500

12208530_10206577228847469_2627166510640037349_n 12247659_10153731180129161_1474284256593558143_o

Sekali lagi terima kasih kepada Tuan Abdullah Mujahid atas kesudian menjadi tuan rumah. InsyaAllah kami akan bertandang lagi ke The Peak Coffee.

Re-Thinking Economics Part 10

A Toothless Government?

It seems that Shariah-based economy system is vehemently allergic to big government. But does that mean Shariah-based economy is a laissez-faire economy? Are the merchants and companies free to operate without any regulation?

Supreme Court Building
Supreme Court Building by Jeff Kubina

Well, not really. Keep in mind that Shariah-based economy system already curtailed large concentration of wealth and power. Thus it is unlikely for the merchant class to do as it please with impunity. Not only big government is unfavorable, mega corporations are also suspect.

The life of Muhammad in Medina provide some clues as to which extant regulatory powers a government should have. In a hadith, the Prophet went to the market and inspected the quality of goods. He queried a fruit seller why he hid the defective fruits behind the good ones.

In another hadith, strong condemnation had been made on those who made false claims in order to sell his goods. This is in line with the prohibition of gharar (uncertainty) in Islamic transaction rule. In other words, Shariah-based economy demands transparency.

Not only that, sellers must also be forthcoming when he’s selling something at loss. It must be for a genuine reason. (Eg; Keeping the unsold stocks cost him significant amount of money) Perhaps this is to prevent price war tactic to pressure a smaller competitor out of the market.

Speaking of competition, there’s a story of Ali asking a seller to dismantle his stall that has advantageous position at the market. He said that the market is like the mosque, no one can reserve a spot. Those who want a coveted spot must come early.

In a similar vein, the Quran also specifically mentioned about willing buyer and willing seller. It can be interpreted in several ways, one there shouldn’t be any undue influence to conduct a transaction. The image of rich people forcing poor people to sell their land readily comes to mind.

Secondly will buyer also implies that the buyer must have a choice of sellers. There can’t be any choice if there’s monopoly in place. Thus we can reason that the government must have the power to enforce effective anti-monopoly laws.

The government must also be able to crack down on hoarding of essential goods — which make sense in a market with derestricted prices. If hoarding is allowed, price of commodities can easily go up due to artificially low supplies.

There’s no contest that the government must ensure safety of people from external threats. But how about internal policing? Here the shariah criminal code come into play — although now usually erronously equated with hudud alone. It actually encompasses qisas, hudud and takzir.

The punishment under hudud are severe but the the conviction is also exceptionally strict. It is designed more of a deterrent rather than a penal code to control the society. Punishment are handed out publicly to instill fear from committing crime but not fear to the government. Better to punish very few, letting most of criminals get away than committing injustice or stuffing lots of criminals in jails.

One implication of implementation of shariah criminal code is that crime rate is reduced. With reduced crime rate, the cost of using the market is also lower. One does not have to worry about theft and murder so there’s no need to spend of guards, locks, security sytem, CCTV, etc. Heck, even POS for that matter!

Beware that shariah criminal code, especially the hudud is not a magic bullet. It can only be implemented after the structural inequality and injustice had been corrected. Hudud in an unjust society could be more of a potential problem leading to abuse of power rather than an instrument of justice.

Another way to look at is that hudud is a capstone to the socio-economic and political reform brought by Islam. The final stick after handing out so many carrots to the people, so to speak.

Thanks for following this article series. We’ll wrap up in the next article by summarizing the key features and patterns of Shariah-based economic system.

Re-Thinking Economics Part 9

Building a Bridge: Big Government vs Small Government

Suppose that both Almayer and Brooks are building a bridge that costs $1 million each. Almayer is governed by a big government while Brooks employs a small government to complement its adherence to Shariah-based economy system.

West Seattle Bridge under construction
Picture from Seattle Municipal Archives

The big government of Almayer do what governments normally do — collecting the fund through tax. But it is impossible to collect $1M in tax without incurring any expenditures. Tax collectors, accountants and record keepers need to be employed.

Just collecting the money already incurr considerable expenses. Yet there’s more expenses coming in spending it. Tender committee need to be compensated, engineer to to set the spec, as well as various government officials to supervise and audit the project.

Even if the tender process goes well, the cheapest bid will not be $1M. The contractor will necessarily inflate the cost to account for late disbursement of fund from the government. Even without that cost, the higher number of stakeholders to be dealt with necessitates higher man hour costs and the inevitable delay costs.

This assumes the contractor play nice and follow the due process. If he bribes the committee then the cost must be passed somewhere. It can be either through reduction of quality or cost inflation. Even worse, he’ll do both!

Meanwhile in Brooks, the government announce that a bridge need to be built. Brooks hardly collects any taxes so the merchants and investors have lots of money. One merchant steps up to pledge the bridge as a waqf. He paid a professional contractor to build the bridge. He just shell out the cost at market price without the added bureaucratic cost?

Utopia?

Hold on, this is an utopian dream! Is it possible to have such an egalitarian society?

If the government is too small, how is it able to provide security to its people? How could it enforce any laws if it can’t pay a single police or prosecutor?

But then, this has happened before. Medieval Islam embraced the law but government is deemed as a necessary evil. In fact, they were slow to have a standing army — the usual required accessory of the state.

Government is kept at arm’s length from the merchants and common people. Many things are decentralized — infrastructures are built by the people for the people. Be it schools, universities, libraries, hospitals, roads or water works. With the nature of Islam that lacks any formal priesthood order, there’s also no big religious institution that have monopoly on people’s life either.

The same people who hopes for an Islamist president or PM also usually hope for price control on essential items. But they’ll be surprised to learn that the Prophet refused to clamp down food price when there’s a food shortage in Medina. He even went as far as declaring that it is irreligious to do so.

It is perplexing when encountering this fact as many collective vision of Islamist social justive includes low prices of essential items — be it wheat, rice, petrol, sugar, etc. Usually this is achieved through subsidies — both during production and distribution. It can also be in the form of guaranteed purchase of produce by the government.

But this have several implications. Most glaringly, this strategy necessitates a big government. Only such institution are able to collect large amount of tax required to fund the subsidies.

Subsidies then introduce distortions to the market. In the case of food, our food is rich in carbohydrate, fat and sugar because it is artificially cheap. It also caused many perfectly edible crops being dumped after being overproduced to stabilize the price.

Again, having big government is too much of a risk — even in the face of a very real risk of hunger. Prudent management of the environment, reduced consumption and strategic stockpiling is deemed as a better alternative. It is even better to hope for the rich to endow their plantations as waqf or give away food as sadaqah.

Some might be wondering that the ideal government seems toothless. Is it really the case? We’ll look into this matter in the next article.

Re-Thinking Economics Part 8

On Government & Politics

In the current bleak outlook of the world, quite a number of Muslims romanticize the return of the Caliphate. Some went as far as resorting to militant actions to realize their dreams. If not, many yearn for an Islamist to become a president or prime minister.

Photo 13-10-15 8 03 04 PTG

The idea is as if a benevolent leader or government will solve all the socio-economic problem overnight. All people needing help will get assistance from the government and all infrastructure people wished for will be built.

Is that the reality or just a fantasy?

Shaykh Abdal Hakim Murad points out that the role of the government is not to provide welfare directly to the people. Instead the leader encourage citizens to help one another.

Contemporary government usually is set up like this; the government collects tax from wealthy individuals and companies. Then the tax collected is used to provide welfare and build infrastructure for the people. In effect, it is a cross-subsidy.

Ideally, that should be the set up. But then tax collected were never enough and usually governments will resort to debt through sovereign bonds. The idea is to borrow money and use it to stimulate the economy. With that, hopefully the economy will expand and the government will have more revenue.

Why tax are not enough to fund welfare and infrastructure for the people? Most famously, we know how the wealthy cook up creative ways to legally avoid paying tax. ‘Double Dutch’ and ‘Irish Sandwich’ are some of the tactics. If that is not enough, they lobby for tax breaks, rebates and reduction of rates.

Let’s rewind all the way to the early days of Muhammad in Medina. After establishing a mosque, he created a new market. At that time, there were four other markets.

The key feature of this market is that there’s no tax imposed and there’s no price control.

If that is the ideal, then how government get anything built? Sure, there’s zakat but it’s only 2.5%. The rate of 20% is only reserved for mineral wealth. That is assuming the people will pay to the government’s Baitulmal.

What if the people choose not to? Then the government will not have any money to spend at all. Does this mean the poor will be left unsupported and no infrastructures will be built?

Rather than forcing the rich to cross-subsidize the poor, Shariah-based economic systems count on the capability of men to be altruistic. The leader points out who need to to be helped and what need to be built. Then the rich contributes directly without government intervention if the form of zakat, sadaqah or waqf. Instead of paying taxes imposed by men, the rich performs an act of worship.

During his life, Muhammad does distributes sadaqah on behalf others but the money are rarely kept overnight. It is usually immediately disbursed to those who need it.

In other words, we can see the pattern fits to the characteristics of a very small government.

Many great institutions and infrastructures present till today in the Muslim world are the result of waqf voluntarily endowed by the rich. It was not a result of government project funded by tax collected from the people. al-Azhar University is one of the prominent example.

This is quite a paradox, earlier on we see who Shariah-based economy is designed to safeguard from human greed. It even went as far as restraining human appetite for consumption. But why when it come to governance and distribution of wealth it expects humans to be benevolent and altruistic?

Through the lens of fragility, perhaps the logic of Shariah-based economy calculated that it is safer this way. It is better to risk the rich being stingy and not contribute to the society than resorting to the formation of a big government.

Collecting tax from the whole country will necessarily lead to the large concentration of wealth. This will also mean large concentration of power which can be easily exploited — both by the elected and those funding the election campaign.

This situation leads to many dysfunctional governments aorund the world. The rich don’t care because they are well-to-do and can lobby the government — enabling them to become ever richer. The poor is too busy struggling to live and can be easily placated with pittance payment from the government.

That leaves the middle squeezed and unable to drive much (if not any) government and societal reform. Shariah-based economy seems keen to stem any sort of government dependancy early on.

There’s also the question of ineffeciencies that besets big bloated governments.

In the next article, let’s return to our example city states of Almayer and Brooks.

Re-Thinking Economics Part 7

Another Dimension of Zakat

Apart from functioning as social safety net, zakat is also instrumental in ensuring redistribution of wealth in the society. After his massive study of inequality in modern economics, Thomas Piketty suggested as wealth tax of 2%.

The current state of inequality and wealth concentration made it hard for the people at the bottom to have socio-economic mobility. A wealth tax of 2% will the hoarded capital and make it available to those who need it the most. They can jumpstart their business once the tax is spent in the form of direct aid or building of infrastructure.

12109079_10200851417445899_1618625733199249833_n

Curiously, the rate proposed is just shy of the zakat rate of 2.5%. The point is, we can see the wisdom behind the injuction of zakat.

There’s also zakat on minerals — defined by those extracted from the earth and seabed. The rate is higher at 20% and due immediately upon extraction instead on annual basis.

Zakat on minerals are rarely enforced — even among oil-rich Muslim countries. Should it is imposed, what are the implications?

First off, it prevents a massive concentration of wealth. Not only the rate is a full one fifith, it also must be paid immediately after surpassing a set minimum amount. The miner can’t keep the zakat portion and pay it at the end of the year.

Mineral wealth and riches are naturally clustered among several areas around the world but zakat ensures that the wealth is spread aounrd. The steep rate and exacting payment schedule will also discourage greed and exploitation. Think about it, how could you exploit laborers if they can get lavish stipend from Baitulmal courtesy of the 20% zakat?

Properly enforced, zakat on minerals is a proactive measure to prevent economic inequality at its roots and ensuring social justice. We can see how oil giants exploit the earth and act with impuntiy. What are the source of their immense power? Quite simply put, lots of money.

A society enriched with the share of 20% of mineral wealth could very well stand up to these oil giants. It will be hard to bully a society that is rich enough to be self sufficient. You can’t easily pay them off to move or silence them with lots of money.

Industrialists will cry out, how could we make money? The zakat on mineral wealth is steep but the derivative products is only subject to annual zakat of just 2.5%.

This will force oil companies (or any mining operation) to hire more people because they can only make more profit with downstream products. Ideally, they also operate within a market that prohibits interest-bearing loans. Thus, they need to resort to mudharabah and musharakah to fund their operations. As such, more wealth will be distributed among the society instead of concentrated to the few.

In coming articles we’ll delve into the issue of governance. Does the return of the Caliphate will really solve our problem?

Re-Thinking Economics Part 6

Social Safety Net

Zakat might be the main thing that come to mind when we discuss about social safety but there are many other instruments. He we attempt to uncover how its supposed to work together.

But first, let’s define the beneficiaries. Within the framework of Credit-ism economics, there’s only the poor. The belief is that we can’t keep giving fish to them, we must enable them to fish on their own.

At a glance, it sounds noble. Who wouldn’t want everybody on this planet able to feed and clothe themselves? Thinking deeper, it’s actually selfish since if it’s true then no one have to care for anybody else.

Shariah-based economics is more nuanced in this matter. There are two categories — masakin and mustadhafin. Masakin is the poor we normally know, those who can’t generate enough income to cover their bare necessities. They are the the one we can enable to fish on their own, so to speak.

As for mustadhafin, they are the weak. These are the people who can’t work — due to severe disabilities and/or other prevailing life circumstances. Stateless refugees readily qualify for this especially in our contemporary context as they are regarded as persona non grata in the eye of law. This status render them unable to seek employment or business permit.

Underage orphans also qualify. They can’t be expected to fend for themselves even though they inherited large amount of wealth. They can’t manage it well and simply be targeted for exploitation. More so in the case of destitute war orphans.

The beneficiaries had been defined, but how about the benefactors? Is it the government. Shaykh Abdal Hakim Murad argued that the government should just facilitate members of community to help one another instead of directly providing welfate. This might sounds counter-intuitive or downright alien but we’ll examine this logic further in other sections.

For the purpose of this section just keep in mind that the obligation of zakat preceded the creation of Baitulmal or any other formal institution to collect and disburse zakat. Zakat as an act of worship is still valid without Baitulmal as intermediary and many Muslims still opt to do so. Some give zakat directly out out of their own preferences or simply because there’s no Baitulmal since they live in a Muslim-minority country.

Photo by Son of Groucho
Photo by Son of Groucho

Without government intervention and intermediary, who are responsible for whom? It is impossible for one super-rich person to take care of everybody in a city-state or country.

The guideline had been readily outlined in Shariah-based economics. Each person is responsible for his neighbours — defined as those who live within 40 house radius from one’s house.

It doesn’t mean that a poor person must appeal directly to his neighbour when he is in need. Instead, his neighbout must be sensitive enough to know who is poor and render the appropriate assistance.

The assistance can be in the form of zakat, donation/gift or Benevolent Loan. The Benevolent Loan can also readily converted to be a donation/gift should the recepient unable to pay it back and the giver made it halal for him. Speaking of debt, those who are in debt are also eligible for zakat.

But those are reactive measures, money given out when members of community is in need. What instruments are used to proactively uplift the community?

For that we have waqf that usually manifests in the form of public infrastructures. Common example includes schools, libraries, hospitals, universities, and water supply. Water in particular can be as small as a pipe in front of one’s house to public wells to massive aqueducts.

These infrastructures lessen the burden of community members as their basic necessities had been taken care of. They are relieved from the cost acquiring drinking water, educating themselves and healthcare when they get sick.

Waqf acts as common wealth that make it easier for the community members to earn enough for their living. It also can be seen as an equalizing force to the problem of non-working rich yet working poor that is rampant in Credit-ism economy.

There’s more to zakat than just a social safety net. We’ll discover more in the next article.